Medically Fit For Exams
Medically Fit For Exams


  1. Introduce yourself, wash hands and check patient details
  2. Explain the procedure and gain consent
  3. Gain the sample if necessary
    • Give the patient a sterile pot, and ask them to collect mid-stream
    • Can be taken from a catheter if necessary
  4. Put on gloves and apron
  5. Check the expiry date of the dipsticks
  6. Inspect the urine
    • Should be straw coloured and clear
    • Cloudy (infection), red (haematuria – check patient isn’t menstruating), or particulate matter are abnormal signs
  7. Remove the cap to ascertain smell, don’t actively smell it, any abnormal scent will be obvious on opening the cap
    • Sweet smelling (glucosuria), feculent (bowel-bladder fistula) and foul smelling (infection) are both abnormal signs
  8. Look at the instructions about how long to leave the dipstick before reading, and which way to hold the dipstick
  9. Take a dipstick out of the container
  10. Dip in in the urine for a couple of seconds, and wipe excess off on the rim of the pot as withdrawing
  11. Note the time, and place the dipstick on a piece of paper towel to remove any excess
  12. Put the cap back on the urine sample
  13. Prepare the comparison scale and wait for the allotted time (probably 60 seconds for most, and 120 seconds for leukocytes)
  14. Look at each of the reagents in turn, noting whether it is normal or abnormal as you go. Try to remember any abnormal readings to present back at the end
  15. Thank the patient
  16. Further tests:
    • Pregnancy test if indicated
    • Microalbuminuria
    • Microscopy, culture and sensitivity if signs of infection (leukocytes, nitrites, blood, protein)
    • Test for red cell casts - glomerulonephritis

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